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rastov ростов (The land of Don River)
The land on which Rostov stands has long been sacred for Russians. Here, Russian warriors fought against the nomads who ravaged the domains of the Kievan Rus. Here, the Don Cossacksformer serfs who had fled to the Don and the Northern Donets to escape the oppression of their owners- valiantly defended the southern frontiers of Russia. And it was in this area that Cossack atamans Stepan Razin, Kondraty Bulavin and Yemelyan Pugachov started their famous uprisings that shook Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The city is considered to be founded in 1749, when the Temernik Frontier Customhouse was opened on the high western bank of the Don. Soon the construction of the fortress of Dmitry Rostovsky was started, and the town that grew up around its walls came to be called "Rostov which lies on the Don" (to distinguish it from the ancient North Russian city of Rostov the Great, which now falls within the bounds of Yaroslavl Region of the Russian Federation). Rostov has always been of great significance to Russia. Apart from being a major city it was also an important strategic point; in the 18th century Rostov fortress, with its redoubts, bastions and cannons, was the largest one in the South of Russia. Rostov-on-Don is one of the most important cities in the south of Russia.
In World War II the German troops seized Rostov twice: in autumn 1941 and in summer 1942. On February 14, 1943, after the victory of Soviet forces under Stalingrad and in the course of a wide attack of the Red Army, Rostov-on-Don was ultimately released. The city was greatly damaged by the war: Rostov-on-Don ranks among Russia’s top ten cities that suffered from the war to the greatest extent.
Now, Rostov is a city with more than 1 million residents and is also an industrial, scientific and cultural center of the Don region.
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